森永ヒ素ミルク中毒事件の教訓と
直面する課題について 
【アーカイブ】


■学術論文 1.
「森永ヒ素ミルク中毒事件50年目の課題」著者:中島貴子
http://shakai-gijutsu.org/vol3/3_90.pdf (PDF:82.3KB)
社会技術研究会 J-STAGE : 社会技術研究論文集

中島貴子氏 略歴 ---
独立行政法人 科学技術振興機構所管の、社会技術研究開発センター研究員、東京大学大学院 法学政治学研究科21世紀COEプログラム 特任研究員を歴任。
近年、下記のような、注目すべき論文を次々に発表している。

■学術論文 2.
『食品安全をめぐるディスコミュニケーション
         ―食品安全委員会への提言―』

https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/sociotechnica/2/0/2_0_321/_article  
(PDF:82.3KB)

 (J-STAGE : 社会技術研究論文集)
 社会技術研究システム・ミッションプログラム
 「安全性に係わる社会問題解決のための知識体系の構築」の研究として実施。

■学術論文 3.
『事故調査と安全確保のための法システム
 T 事故調査・情報収集分析体制の在り方
    事故調査と被害者救済---個別事例の観点から』 

  (Jurist ジュリスト誌特集論文 2006年発表をご参照ください)

■学術論文 4.
『公害事件における無視型リスクと専門家の倫理
      ―リスクガバナンスの観点から―
(2008年)
■学術論文 5.
『科学的知見の不確実性と専門家の倫理
      ―戦後日本の食品事件を例として―
(2007年)
http://repo.lib.nitech.ac.jp/bitstream/123456789/3675/1/grknit2007_51.pdf

■学術論文
 6
「食品のリスク評価と専門知の陥穽に関する歴史的考察
 ─森永ヒ素ミルク中毒事件を中心に」
著者:中島貴子
『日本の科学者』2007年5月1日発行版 掲載論文(PDF:3,700KB)

森永ヒ素ミルク中毒事件には、医学や法律の専門知がリスク評価を誤り、事態を混乱させ、被害者救済を遅らせた側面がある。この側面は、リスク評価の対象や方法の選択を特定分野の専門家に独占させず、消費者保護を最優先に考える幅広い専門家に解放する必要と、専門家と一般市民の協同作業の有効性を吟味する必要を示している。」 (同論文リードより)

■学術論文 7.
『科学技術のリスク評価における非専門家の役割
      ―森永ヒ素粉乳中毒事件を中心に―
(2013年)
政策研究大学院大学 NATIONAL GRADUATE INSTITUTE FOR POLICY STUDIES
http://www.grips.ac.jp/cms/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/fulltextdoc09001.pdf

(随時追加していきます)


【疫学論文】
森永砒素ミルク中毒に関する疫学調査:瀬野地区における広大・岡大合同検診最終報告 
(日本衛生学雑誌/1972)
Epidemiological Studies on the Morinaga Powdered Milk Poisoning Incident
  ※本文は日本語です
https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jjh1946/27/6/27_6_500/_pdf

【抄録】
In 1955, many babies who had drunk arsenic-tainted milk produced at the Tokushima Plant of the Morinaga Milk-Industry Company Ltd., suffered from serious poisoning. The number of victims ascertained in February, 1956 covering 27 prefectures in the western part of Japan was 12, 159, of whom 131 died.
The disaster was caused by the process of manufacturing the powdered milk. Disodium phosphate was added as a stabilizer to make the milk easily soluble. This disodium phosphate was poorly purified, intended for non-food industrial use, and contained a toxic dose of arsenic, sodium arsenite and vanadium compounds etc.
Shortly after the disaster, numerous medical reports were published. A committee organized by the Society for Child Health (the chairman was Prof. Nishizawa of Osaka University; so it was called the Nishizawa Committee), determined criteria for the diagnosis of the poisoning; but these criteria were inadequate and erroneous from several points of view. Strange to say, debates and publications about the disaster disappeared quickly after the report was published by the Health Department of Okayama Prefecture stating that the victims had recovered completely according to the criteria established by the Nishizawa Committee only one year after the disaster.
Until 1969, when Prof. Maruyama et al., of Osaka University reported on victims whom they had visited, no study had been made to ascertain whether or not there were any after-effects of the poisoning. Much fault must be found with the Ministry of Health and Welfare, with the attitude of the Morinaga Company, and with the doctors concerned, for this neglect to follow-up such an unprecedented and large-scale disaster.
In 1969, the authors managed to organize an epidemiological study group with several departments of Hiroshima University and the Department of Hygiene of Okayama University cooperating and have developed joint research on this disaster as follows:
1. A follow-up survey was made among victims in Okayama Prefecture between December 1969 and April 1970. 214 people answered the questionnaire and 74 were given a medical examination.
2. A prospective study was made on the basis of a questionnaire on clnical complaints collected at the time of the disaster in 1955.
3. A comparative study was performed between the victims and their brothers and sisters.
4. A comparative study was performed among handicapped children in institutions in Okayama Prefecture, who were born between January 1st, 1953 and December 31st, 1955. The children were divided into three groups, namely those who had consumed the arsenic-tainted milk, those who were brought up on different brands of powdered milk from different companies, and those fed only maternal milk.
5. A comparative study was performed among all children born between January 1st, 1954 and December 31st, 1955 and brought up in Seno district in Hiroshima Prefecture which has a relatively stationary population and where good records had been kept of the physical growth and mental development of the children in the nursery, primary and junior high schools. The children were divided into the same three groups as mentioned above. This study was performed as a joint research project by the Departments of Public Health (Director: Prof. M. Tanaka), Orthopedics (Director: Prof. K. Tsuge), Ophthalmology (Director: Prof. T. Dodo) and Psychiatry and Neurology (Director: Prof. K. Sarai) of Hiroshima University Medical School and Deparment of Conservative Dentistry (Director: Prof. T. Inoue) of Hiroshima University Dental School, and Department of Hygiene (Director: Prof. M. Ohira) of Okayama University Medical School. All clinical examinations were conducted separately under the double blind method.
6. The 124 cases of the children examined in the district of Senogawa town were discussed individually by the six medical doctors and five dentists who did the examinations.

 
https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jjh1946/27/6/27_6_500/_article

Distinguished Alumnus Award 2010
2010 Recipients
Hideyasu Aoyama, SPH '69

Hideyasu Aoyama managed the directors of every preventive medicine department in all of Japan's medical schools prior to his retirement in 2003, including Okayama University Medical School and Kochi Women’s University, the premier Japanese women's institute for nursing and health. He has been an outspoken voice for worker safety, pushing to discover the etiology of the disease subacute myelo-optic neuropathy (SMON), a neurologic disease resulting from exposure to the drug clioquinol, which was associated with two epidemics in Okayama. He was among the few public health physicians who worked to establish the industrial origins of an outbreak of arsenic poisoning among Japanese children and to continue to bring public pressure upon the company that was responsible. His work eventually led to long-term treatment and care for survivors of the epidemic. Hideyasu has also been decorated with a number of nationally based awards in Japan as well as election to the Johns Hopkins Society of Scholars. In February 1999, he was elected to the Bloomberg School's Dean's Alumni Advisory Council. Hideyasu has brought a global perspective to the practice of public health in Japan. Within one year of his graduation from the Bloomberg School he helped to set up a fellowship program for non-Japanese physicians coming to Japan. He reinforced his beliefs in cultural exchange and international scholarship in May 2002 when he endowed the Aoyama-Kita Scholarship at the Bloomberg School of Public Health, which has granted funding to students every year since its founding.
Johns Hopkins Alumnus Distinguished Alumnus Award 2010から引用



【関連サイト】
社会技術研究開発センター(RISTEX)
Research Institute Science and Technology Society 
>>>独立行政法人 科学技術振興機構



(随時追加していきます)

参考ページ
学術論文U
デジタルアーカイブ コーナー

 トップページへ戻る